New Solutions in Neuropsychiatry


What is a Neuroplastogen?

Neuroplastogens are agents that enhance neuroplasticity and hold therapeutic potential to treat many central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Neuroplasticity refers to changes in the structure, connectivity and function of brain cells. It is how the brain adapts to new learning and experiences and is impaired by CNS disorders including PTSD, depression and anxiety. Rapidly acting neuroplastogens induce rapid, robust, and long-lasting improvement in neuroplasticity and behavior, corresponding to fast-acting, meaningful and durable clinical benefit.
TSND-201 (methylone)

Understanding TSND-201 (methylone)

Methylone, a rapid-acting neuroplastogen, has been found to rapidly induce the expression of neuroplasticity genes, such as BDNF, in brain areas that underlie the pathophysiology of PTSD, depression, and other CNS disorders.

Mechanism of Action

  • Context: PTSD, MDD, anxiety driven by deficits in brain circuitry underlying emotional learning and processing1,2
  • Methylone rapidly induces neuroplasticity gene expression (e.g., BDNF) in brain areas underlying pathophysiology of PTSD, depression, and anxiety3,4,5
  • Collaborative grant ($1M from US DoD) with leading Yale scientists awarded to support further work on neuroplasticity MoA


1) Fenster et al., Nat Rev Neurosci, 2018. 2) Hare and Duman, Mol Psychiatry, 2020. 3) Warner-Schmidt et al., American Society for Clinical Psychopharmacology annual meeting, 2023.  4) Kredlow et al., Neuropsychopharmacology, 2021. 5) Liu et al., Nature Communications, 2020. 6) Long et al., Translational Psychiatry, 2021.  7) Warner-Schmidt et al., in preparation 2023.

Well-characterized primary pharmacology

  • Triple reuptake inhibitor and releaser (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine)
  • Rapid, robust serotonin and norepinephrine release in frontal cortex of the brain8
  • No off-target toxicity expected, as no agonism or antagonism at 168 GCPRs7


7) Warner-Schmidt et al., in preparation, 2023. 8) Yu et al., under review, 2023


Unlike classical psychedelics, methylone is not hallucinogenic and does not directly interact with 5-HT2A receptors.⁷


7) Warner-Schmidt et al., in preparation 2023.